The Fascinating World of Footbag: Origins and Disciplines

The world of sports is a vast and diverse landscape, encompassing everything from the most popular and mainstream games to the most unique activities.

One such sport that has been quietly gaining popularity is Footbag, and it’s quite possible you’ve come across it without even realizing.

  1. What is Footbag?

Footbag is a relatively young sporting discipline that involves the use of a small, ball filled with pebbles. This ball, sometimes referred to as a “Hacky Sack,” can be made from various materials, including fabric, leather, or plastic. It’s important to note that this is not your typical tennis or ping pong ball; it’s designed to be soft and flexible.

The primary objective in Footbag is to keep the ball in the air by using your feet, without allowing it to touch the ground.

  1. The Origins: From Ancient China to Oregon

While finding the exact birthdate of Footbag is challenging, some historical evidence suggests that a similar activity dates back approximately 2000 years in ancient China. In China, small balls filled with stones were used to play “Jianzi,” a sport still popular in various parts of Asia, notably in Vietnam and the Philippines. Interestingly, it also served as a form of military training in some Chinese villages during the 3rd century BC. Soldiers would pass the small ball to one another without allowing it to drop, all without the use of their hands.

To find the modern version of Footbag, or Hacky Sack, we must fast forward to the summer of 1972, in Oregon. It was here that Mike Marshall introduced John Stalberger to a game he had learned from Native Americans. This game involved keeping a small bag filled with beans in the air for as long as possible, using only the feet, and forbidding the use of arms and hands.

  1. The Evolution of Footbag Up to the Present Day

Mike Marshall and John Stalberger can be considered the pioneers of Footbag in the Western world. Starting in the summer of 1972, they began experimenting with various versions of the bag, including trying different fillings like pebbles. Eventually, they created a cloth disc that would become the Hacky Sack. The brand was officially registered in 1974, and its popularity quickly spread throughout the United States and beyond in the following years.

As the years passed, the Footbag phenomenon went global, and the original NHSA was replaced by the World Footbag Association in 1984. This international association was supported by the International Footbag Player’s Association, which established the first Hall of Fame dedicated to this sport.

  1. Footbag Disciplines

Footbag has evolved into a diverse and dynamic sport with several disciplines, each offering a unique experience. Let’s explore some of the most popular Footbag disciplines:

  • Circle Kicking: Imagine a day at the beach with friends. After a while, you decide to engage in some quick passes. That’s the essence of Circle Kicking, played with the Hacky Sack. Participants form a circle and pass the ball to one another, striving to prevent it from hitting the ground. There’s no competition; instead, groups aim to achieve endurance records, which can extend to over 65,000 passes.


  • Freestyle Footbag: Freestyle Footbag is reminiscent of Freestyle Soccer. The objective is to perform tricks with the ball, involving moves like blocking it with the foot, heel, or even behind the neck while it’s in mid-air. The key is to keep the ball from touching the ground. These performances are assessed by a jury, similar to the judging in artistic gymnastics or some martial arts. Notable techniques include the “Toe Kick,” which entails dribbling the ball on the toes of one foot and then alternating to the other foot, and the “Toe Delay.”


  • Footbag Net: As the name implies, Footbag Net introduces a competitive element. Two teams, each consisting of two players, are separated by a net roughly one and a half meters high. The goal is to throw the ball from one side of the net to the other. This version of Footbag combines elements of badminton, volleyball, and tennis.


  • Hacky Attack: Hacky Attack is another competitive Footbag discipline that involves two pairs competing against each other. It’s reminiscent of dodgeball, where one player from each team serves as the pitcher, attempting to hit the opposing team’s equivalent role while the catcher tries to retrieve the ball and pass it to their pitcher. Points are scored when an opponent is hit, and the first team to reach five points wins. This specialty is primarily played on sand fields measuring 10 by 15 meters.


In conclusion, Footbag is an exciting and rapidly evolving sport with a rich history and a wide range of disciplines. Whether you’re a casual player looking for some fun at the beach or a serious competitor aiming to master intricate tricks, Footbag offers something for everyone. So next time you come across a group of people keeping a Hacky Sack in the air with their feet, you’ll have a deeper appreciation for the fascinating world of Footbag.